The earliest material evidence of human presence and activity in the area of Veria dates back to the end of the Neolithic Period (3rd millennium BC) and has been researched in the west bank of Tripotamos..
Beroia was founded on a naturally fortified hill on the western slopes of Bermion Mt, near the river Aliakmon. The direct access to the natural mountain wealth of Bermion (wood, marble, poros stone), to the fertile plain of the ‘’Lovely’’ (according to Homer) Imathia and its strategic location in the passages and roads to Aigai, Pella and Upper Macedonia made it one of the most important cities of the Macedonian kingdom. Until the late Roman years the main cemeteries of the ancient city were organized along these streets that ended at the main gates of the ancient city.
First time Beroia is attested in the ancient sources by Thucydides in his description of the first year of the Peloponnesian War (Summer of 432 BC), while the only ancient myth associated with the divine genealogy of the city and dating to the Hellenistic years, mentions Beroia as daughter of the river god Veritos, sister of the city of Mieza and the river god Olganos.
The archeological finds of the archaic times are few, come exclusively from tombs and testify with the presence of large pottery and choroplasty workshops (Corinthian, Athenian, Ionian) the commercial and cultural contacts with the whole Mediterranean world.
The first epigraphic evidence, in Beroia Veria identifies itself as a city, is part of a votive marble slab to Hercules Kynagidas and dates to the second half of the 4th century BC. At this time Beroia seems to be acquiring city walls and a basic urban planning. Nothing is known about the organization of its urban space before the reign of Philip II, who seems to be reforming the sporadic and possibly ‘’kata komas’’ (in small villages around the seat of the local authorities). Until the 3rd century AD, Beroia has flourished all the institutions of the Greek city and shows high achievements of urban culture. The ancient city had a boule, parliament, gymnasium, theater and its most important sanctuaries were dedicated to Hercules Kynagidas, Dionysus, Zeus, the Mother of the Gods, Asclepius, the Egyptian gods, Atargatis, Aphrodite, Athena, Apollo.
Veria offered in the 3rd century BC. in the kingdom of his second longest dynasty, the Antigonids. It is the era of economic growth and urban development, which will culminate in Roman times. The grave goods of the vaulted cut-rock tombs, the typical example of the Beroia monumental burial architecture of the Hellenistic period, testify to the material strength of its inhabitants and determine the special character of the artistic production of the city in the ceramic and clay figurines workshops.
The end of the Macedonian kingdom and the subjugation of the region to Roman rule and administration will mark the culmination of the prosperity of the city. While Aigai have ceased from the 1st c. AD to be the leading urban, political, historical and symbolic center of the Macedonians, Beroia is twice honored as neokoros, ie acquires the right to establish a temple of imperial cult, and becomes the Metropolis of the Macedonians, seat of the Koinon of Macedonians, a large and crowded city, as mentioned by Pseudo-Lucian. Centuries after the overthrow of the Macedonian kingdom, Beroia will organize games in memory and cult of Alexander and issued bronze coins in his form.
Among the few visible ancient monuments for the current visitor of Beroia are the parts of the ancient wall at the northern and southern entrance of the city, which mark the end of its ancient history. The barbaric raids, already from the middle of the 3rd c. AD, ending the long Pax Romana, force the citizens of the Beroia to rebuild their city walls, using parts of the city's splendid buildings as ready-made building material. From now on the city changes shape and will soon emerge again as the top center of the Christian East.